ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE?

ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE? - Workshop de inglês - Estúdio447

ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE?

* A conversation about aliens, UFOs and the Fermi Paradox. If other intelligent life exists in our universe, then where are all the aliens? In this workshop we will discuss the Fermi paradox: the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extra-terrestrial civilisations and humanity's lack of contact with, or evidence for, such civilisations.

 

INTRODUCTION
Where are all the aliens? In this workshop we will discuss the Fermi Paradox: the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extra-terrestrial civilizations and humanity's lack of contact with, or evidence for, such civilizations.

* I would like to credit Tim Urban’s brilliant Wait But Why article titled “The Fermi Paradox” as the original inspiration and basis for the content of this workshop. For the full, in depth and entertaining look at this subject I strongly urge you to read this article.


THE NIGHT SKY
A really starry sky seems vast - but all we’re looking at is our very local neighbourhood. On the very best nights, we can see up to about 2,500 stars (roughly one hundred-millionth of the stars in our galaxy), and almost all of them are less than 1,000 light years away from us (or 1% of the diameter of the Milky Way).


HOW MANY STARS ARE THERE IN THE UNIVERSE
There are (100 – 400 billion) stars in our galaxy and there are roughly an equal number of galaxies in the observable universe - so for every star in the colossal Milky Way, there’s a whole galaxy out there. All together, that comes out to the typically quoted range of between 1022 and 1024 total stars, which means that for every grain of sand on every beach on Earth, there are 10,000 stars out there.


HOW MANY OF THOSE STARS ARE LIKE OUR SUN?
The science world isn’t in total agreement about what percentage of the stars are “sun-like” (similar in size, temperature, and luminosity) - opinions typically range from 5% to 20%. Going with the most conservative estimate of (5%), and the lower estimate for the number of total stars (1022), gives us 500 quintillion, or 500 billion billion sun-like stars.


HOW MANY EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ARE THERE?
There is also a debate over what percentage of those sun-like stars might be orbited by an Earth-like planet (one with similar temperature conditions that could have liquid water and potentially support life similar to that on Earth). Some say it’s as high as 50%, but let’s go with the more conservative 22% that came out of a recent PNAS study.2 That suggests that there is a potentially habitable Earth-like planet orbiting at least 1% of the total stars in the universe - a total of 100 billion billion Earth-like planets. So there are 100 Earth-like planets for every grain of sand in the world. Think about that next time you’re on the beach.

 

*** THIS IS ONLY THE BEGINNING OF THE 'ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE?' WORKSHOP! IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO EXPERIENCE THIS CONVERSATION WORKSHOP IN FULL, WITH A GLASS OF WINE AND A FRIENDLY GROUP OF PEOPLE, THEN PLEASE CONTACT US TO FIND OUT HOW TO PARTICIPATE. 
 

The rest of this workshop will discuss...

  • HOW MUCH INTELLIGENT LIFE IS OUT THERE?   
  • SETI
  • THE KARDASHEV SCALE
  • THE FERMI PARADOX
  • THE GREAT FILTER
  • IS THE GREAT FILTER BEHIND US OR AHEAD OF US?
  • INTELLIGENT LIFE DOES EXIST
  • POSSIBILITY 1) SUPER-INTELLIGENT LIFE COULD HAVE ALREADY VISITED EARTH, BUT BEFORE WE WERE HERE
  • POSSIBILITY 2) THE GALAXY HAS BEEN COLONIZED, BUT WE JUST LIVE IN SOME DESOLATE RURAL AREA OF THE GALAXY
  • POSSIBILITY 3) THE ENTIRE CONCEPT OF PHYSICAL COLONIZATION IS A HILARIOUSLY BACKWARD CONCEPT TO A MORE ADVANCED SPECIES
  • POSSIBILITY 4) THERE ARE SCARY PREDATOR CIVILIZATIONS OUT THERE AND MOST INTELLIGENT LIFE KNOWS BETTER THAN TO BROADCAST ANY OUTGOING SIGNALS AND ADVERTISE THEIR LOCATION
  • POSSIBILITY 5) THERE’S ONLY ONE INSTANCE OF HIGHER-INTELLIGENT LIFE—A “SUPER-PREDATOR” CIVILIZATION (LIKE HUMANS ARE HERE ON EARTH)—WHO IS FAR MORE ADVANCED THAN EVERYONE ELSE AND KEEPS IT THAT WAY BY EXTERMINATING ANY INTELLIGENT CIVILIZATION ONCE THEY GET PAST A CERTAIN LEVEL
  • POSSIBILITY 6) THERE’S PLENTY OF ACTIVITY AND NOISE OUT THERE BUT OUR TECHNOLOGY IS TOO PRIMITIVE AND WE’RE LISTENING FOR THE WRONG THINGS
  • POSSIBILITY 7) WE ARE RECEIVING CONTACT FROM OTHER INTELLIGENT LIFE, BUT THE GOVERNMENT IS HIDING IT
  • POSSIBILITY 8) HIGHER CIVILIZATIONS ARE AWARE OF US AND ARE OBSERVING US (AKA THE “ZOO HYPOTHESIS”)
  • POSSIBILITY 9) HIGHER CIVILIZATIONS ARE HERE, ALL AROUND US. BUT WE’RE TOO PRIMITIVE TO PERCEIVE THEM
  • POSSIBILITY 10) WE’RE COMPLETELY WRONG ABOUT OUR REALITY

QUESTION

Do you think intelligent life exists beyond Earth? Please let us know by leaving a response in the comment section below.

 


VOCABULARY

  • to urge (someone): (verb) [Portuguese: incitar] – try earnestly or persistently to persuade (someone) to do something.
  • starry: (adjective) [Portuguese: estrelado] – i.e. A starry sky is a sky with lots of stars in it.
  • vast: (adjective) [Portuguese: vasto] – of very great extent or quantity; immense.
  • colossal: (adjective) [Portuguese: colossal] – extremely large.
  • habitable: (adjective) [Portuguese: Habitável] – suitable or good enough to live in.
  • laser beam: (noun) [Portuguese: Raio Laser] – a beam of radiation produced from a laser. E.g. Used in surgery, communications and weapons systems.
  • satellite array: (noun) [Portuguese: Matriz de satélites] – an ordered arrangement of satellites.
  • broad: (adjective) [Portuguese: amplo] – covering a large number and wide scope of subjects or areas.
  • to harness: (verb) [Portuguese: aproveitar] – control and make use of (natural resources), especially to produce energy.
  • feeble: (adjective) [Portuguese: fraco] – lacking physical strength, especially as a result of age or illness.
  • hunch: (noun) [Portuguese: intuição] - feeling or guess based on intuition rather than known facts. "she was acting on a hunch".
  • stretches: (noun) [Portuguese: extensões] – a continuous area or expanse of land or water.
  • sentient: (adjective) [Portuguese: senciente] - Having the power of perception by the senses; conscious.
  • ant-hill: (noun) [Portuguese: formigueiro] - a mound like nest built by ants or termites.
  • magnanimous: (adjective) [Portuguese: magnânimo] - very generous or forgiving, especially toward a rival or someone less powerful than oneself.
  • a little blip of time: (expression) [Portuguese: um pouco de tempo] – a very short period of time.
  • to flip out: (verb) [Portuguese: enlouquecer] – to lose control and behave in a crazy or enraged way.
  • hunter-gatherer tribes: (noun) [Portuguese: tribos caçadores-coletores] – small communities or groups of people who survive by hunting animals or collecting natural foods such as nuts or fruits.
  • hilarious: (adjective) [Portuguese: hilário] – extremely amusing.
  • frigid: (adjective) [Portuguese: frígido] – very cold in temperature.
  • newbie: (noun) [Portuguese: novato] - A person who is new to something
  • dwelling: (noun) [Portuguese: habitação] - a house, apartment, or other place of residence.
  • altruistic: (adjective) [Portuguese: altruísta] – showing a disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others; unselfish.
  • jungle: (noun) [Portuguese: selva] - an area of land overgrown with dense forest and tangled vegetation, typically in the tropics
  • plenty: (pronoun) [Portuguese abundância] - a large or sufficient amount or quantity; more than enough.
  • white noise: (noun) [Portuguese: ruído branco] – noise containing many frequencies with equal intensities.
  • highway: (noun) [Portuguese: rodovia] – a big multi-lane road.
  • fancy: (adjective) [Portuguese: chique] - elaborate in structure or decoration.
  • to smash: (verb) [Portuguese: esmagar] – violently break (something) into pieces.
  • utter: (adjective) [Portuguese: absoluto] – complete; absolute.

 

EXTRA INFO

  • The Milky Way: (noun) [Portuguese: via Láctea] – a faint band of light crossing the sky, made up of vast numbers of faint stars. It corresponds to the plane of our Galaxy, in which most of its stars are located.
  • light year: (noun) ) [Portuguese: ano luz] - a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9.4607 × 10 12 km (nearly 6 trillion miles).
  • PNAS: is one of the world's most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,800 research papers annually.
  • Carl Sagan: was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science populariser, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
  • Zeus: (noun) The name of a Greek god, related to the old Indo-European god *Dyeus whose name probably meant "shine" or "sky". In Greek mythology he was the highest of the gods. After he and his siblings defeated the Titans, Zeus ruled over the earth and humankind from atop Mount Olympus.
  • Inuit: are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska.
  • Pizarro: Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who travelled through much of the Pacific coast of America along Peru.
  • Gamma-ray bursts: (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several hours.

 

SOURCES

  1.  “The Fermi Paradox”, Urban, Tim, May 2014, Wait But Why
  2. “Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars”, Marcy, Geoffrey, October 2013, PNAS

 

** SE VOCÊ GOSTARIA DE USAR O CONTEÚDO DESTE OU QUALQUER OUTRO BLOG POST/ WORKSHOP FAVOR ENTRAR EM CONTATO COM JAMES SUTTON PELO EMAIL JAMES(AT)ESTUDIO447.NET